MARCH 26, 2020 -- LECTURE 23
In advance of the April 2nd, 2020 Second Term
Take-Home Test worth (20%).
Two essay- based responses
Please note: The actual test questions will be posted on this site next week.
THE TWO QUESTIONS WILL COME FROM THE FOLLOWING THREE TOPICS
Drawing upon the relevant readings, tutorial discussions and lectures you are asked to respond with clear, consistent and logical analyses, answer only two of the three questions are to be answered.
Please note that each answer is worth 10 marks.
Each answer will be restricted to no more than 500 words.
The test questions will be restricted to the areas/ chapters and lectures below.
Again, only 2 of the three areas are to be answered.
All three questions will appear on the test and you are to select two only
Study the following three areas:
You are to answer questions on only two of these areas.
Refer to the online notes re. Lecture 13, January 9th, 2020: The Nature of Quantitative Research
Bryman and E. Bell (2019): Chapter 4
Refer to the online notes re Lecture 16, January 30th, 2020: Quantitative Sampling
Bryman and E. Bell (2019): Chapter 7
Refer to the online notes of Lecture 22, March 19th, 2020: Re-visioning Quantitative and Qualitative
Bryman and E. Bell (2019): Chapter 14.
From Course Outline
A+ 90-100; A 80-89; B+ 75-79; B 70-74; C+ 65-69; C 60-64; D+ 55-59; D 50-54; E 40-49; F 0-40.
GUIDELINES FOR GRADES
In addition to defining “typical” grade distributions, York University provides definitions for individual student’s grades (which are included in the York University Faculty of Liberal Arts & Professional Studies Undergraduate Programs Calendar):
A+ — Exceptional: Thorough knowledge of concepts and/or techniques and exceptional skill or great originality in the use of those concepts/techniques in satisfying the requirements of an assignment or course.
A — Excellent: Thorough knowledge of concepts and/or techniques together with a high degree of skill and/or some elements of originality in satisfying the requirements of an assignment or course.
B+ — Very good: Thorough knowledge of concepts and/or techniques together with a fairly high degree of skill in the use of those concepts/techniques in satisfying the requirements of an assignment or course.
B — Good: Good level of knowledge of concepts and/or techniques together with considerable skill in using them to satisfy the requirements of an assignment of course
C+ — Competent: Acceptable level of knowledge of concepts and/or techniques together with considerable skill in using them to satisfy the requirements of an assignment or course.
C — Fairly competent: Acceptable level of knowledge of concepts and/or techniques together with some sill in using them to satisfy the requirements of an assignment or course.
D+ — Passing: Slightly better than minimal knowledge of required concepts and/or techniques together with some ability to use them in satisfying the requirements of an assignment or course.
D — Barely passing: Minimum knowledge of concepts and/or techniques needed to satisfy the requirements of an assignment or course.
E — Marginally failing.
F — Failing.
TEST ESSAY EVALUATION (criteria listed from most to least important)
TEMPLATE (L. A. VISANO)
FOCUS, CLARITY, CONSISTENCY AND LOGIC ARE VERY IMPORTANT ELEMENTS
Comprehension of material/concepts discussed
Application of relevant analysis
Logic, clarity, and consistency of analysis: quality not quantity of paragraphs/ pages
Linking together of theory and application
Weak; superficial depth, missing persuasiveness, descriptive/not analytical counter, ill-informed/ opinions/ journalistic/ (stream of consciousness) not thoughtful etc.
Substantiate all arguments raised; defensible position; supportable; thematically arranged; new ideas raised; innovative; courageous; bold; timid; ambitious; too informal; circular; trite\ cliché\ shallow\; how defensible/tenable is the analysis.
Accuracy and skill at applying concepts/techniques; thoroughness of application
Comprehension of assumptions necessary to render concept/technique/method applicable to problem. Inadequate/ inappropriate use of theory to support argument; unclear theoretical perspective; method inconsistent with theoretical perspective
Absence of rationale for theoretical perspective or method; no recognition of limitations of theory/method adopted.
quality of arguments: poorly researched; current trends and theories shortshrifted; appreciation of the literature; related explicitly to the course headings; funnel approach.
DEVELOPMENT OF ISSUE(S)
Asking the appropriate questions (very important).
Indication of thinking through the thinking process
Setting out of main points and central issues (grounding the arguments)
Provision of background context and/or history
Integration of course material into development and presentation of argument.
Application of “hourglass” shape of development (general-specific-general). Shape a) general b) specific c) general. Circular? well corroborated, demonstrates critical capacities; clearly stated thesis; levels of articulation; levels of coherence; direction, flow and logical sequencing; too discursive /descriptive; too many issues raised and foci buried; deplete of foci/ ; muddled interpretations/ excessive jargon/ clichés/slogans; Is the Main Argument Supported; How so? What kinds of evidence (empirical?); loses sight of the salient themes
Development: unclear logical or thematic development; relation to course material unclear; incomplete/distorted/contradictory argument
Expression of issue(s) and their respective significance.
Identification and explanation of theory/ methods/ policy implications.
Thesis statement focus. (Significance; utility; originality; too general, too much territory; focus; too narrow - insensitive to related issues).
- Comprehension of material/concept discussed.
- Application of relevant analysis.
- Logic, clarity, and consistency of analysis.
- Linking together of theory and application.
- Proper and complete referencing with citations clearly supporting argument.
- Accuracy and skill at applying concepts/techniques; thoroughness of application
- Comprehension of assumptions necessary to render concept/technique/method applicable to problem.
Development of Issue(s):
- Setting out of main points and central issues.
- Provision of background context and/or history.
- Integration of course material into development and presentation of argument.
- Application of “hourglass” shape of development (general-specific-general).
- Expression of issue(s).
- Explanation of issue’s importance.
- Identification and explanation of policy implications.
- Thesis statement focus.
Paragraphs and Paragraph Unity:
- Use of topic sentences and links to the issue or to stages of argument.
- Recognition and engagement of the reader as audience.
- Clarity in implied ordering of material to follow.
- Focus of introduction and implied focus of the paper.
- Sense of completion.
- Review and synthesis of arguments.
Grammar and Usage: Clarity and correctness; patterns of errors
Mechanics: title; spelling; punctuation; notes; pagination; bibliography
- Overall coherence of answer
- Overall demonstration of knowledge
- Overall demonstration of skill and analysis
Analysis: weak; superficial/lacking depth; descriptive; statements unsupported; thematic or logic of argument unclear; informal; circular; sources not cited/inadequately cited; sources replace argument (stringing together quotes).
Skill: inadequate/inappropriate use of theory to support argument; unclear theoretical perspective; method inconsistent with theoretical perspective; absence of rationale for theoretical perspective or method; no recognition of limitations of theory/method adopted.
Development: unclear logical or thematic development; relation to course material unclear; incomplete/distorted/contradictory argument
Issues/Thesis Statement: too narrow/omit related issues; too general/broad
Paragraphs/Paragraph Unity: one sentence paragraphs; too many short paragraphs; topic sentences absent or unclear
Introduction: unclear topic identification; unclear motivation for issues; absence of implied outline of paper
Conclusion: inadequate summary/review/synthesis
Grammar and Usage: errors in spelling/syntax; run-on sentences
Mechanics: incorrect punctuation; incorrect use of end/foot notes; no page numbers; incorrect/incomplete bibliography
TEST EVALUATION (criteria listed from most to least important) TEMPLATE (L.A. VISANO)
E: Excellent; VG: Very Good; G: Good; W: Weak; I: Incomplete; NA: Not Applicable
|Comprehension of material/concept discussed.|
|Application of relevant analysis.|
|Logic, clarity, and consistency of analysis.|
|Linking together of theory and application.|
|Accuracy and skill at applying concepts/techniques; thoroughness of application|
|Comprehension of assumptions necessary to render concept/technique/method applicable to problem.|
|XX||XX||XX||XX||XX||XX||Development of Issue(s):|
|Setting out of main points and central issues.|
|Provision of background context and/or history.|
|Integration of course material into development and presentation of argument.|
|Application of “hourglass” shape of development (general-specific-general).|
|Expression of issue(s).|
|Explanation of issue’s importance.|
|Identification and explanation of policy implications.|
|Thesis statement focus.|
|XX||XX||XX||XX||XX||XX||Paragraphs and Paragraph Unity:|
|Use of topic sentences and links to the issue or to stages of argument.|
|Recognition and engagement of the reader as audience.|
|Clarity in implied ordering of material to follow.|
|Focus of introduction and implied focus of the paper.|
|Sense of completion.|
|Review and synthesis of arguments.|
|Grammar and Usage: Clarity and correctness; patterns of errors|
|Mechanics: spelling; punctuation|
|Overall coherence of answer|
|Overall demonstration of knowledge|
|Overall demonstration of skill and analysis|
You are expected to offer analysis and criticism. Suggest alternative explanations. Indicate the limitations and inconsistencies in other people's work.
From Course Outline
The objective of the course is to introduce a critical understanding of the role of justice in the lives of children (pre-adolescence, adolescence and youth) as well the social and historical constitution of the changing rights of children. To this end, the historical development of the concept of the “child” and the current social realities of children will be examined as well as they influence institutions of child socialization such as the family, friends, schools, law, and media. Essentially, this course introduces students to think about and study the differential impact of culture in shaping the relationship(s) between justice and children. The study of the impact of implicit and deliberate social policies on the constitution of childhood identity will be supplemented with a more fundamental concern for the child as social actor who is able to negotiate and resist forms of social pressure.
The concept of childhood is examined in terms of the "social self", that is, the complex relationship between self and society (identity and ideologies). This course moves beyond social psychology by investigating conceptually the “institutionalized” reproduction of the social "child". Our inquiries into socialization implicate social, political and economic struggles that reflect fundamental issues of injustice and inequality. Institutional forms of socialization are examined in terms of their respective relationship(s) with the state, political economy, law and culture. Children as offended against and as offenders (acting subjects and subjected actors) within the cultural calculus, are linked to hegemonic practices. For example, the social conditions of troubled children and children in trouble (poverty, abuse, violence, delinquency, etc.) informal and formal interventionist strategies and the consequences of containment, accommodation and resistance are highlighted. This course examines the relationship(s) of the self, groups, community and institutions; the interpretive framework for appreciating social realities; the location of agency and structure; generic processes of the situation; contexts, consequences and contests of meanings; challenges and prospects of linking the actor and community; theoretic convergences; and the philosophy of the psychoanalysis.
Specifically, this course directs attention to the dynamic, dialectical and yet differential impact of ideologies on identities and institutions. We will investigate how ideologies shape policies and practices as well as the behavior and beliefs of children. How for example does law advance justice for children?
After completing this course, students should be able to interrogate how discourses and practice create children as ideologically appropriate subjects and how theories form and inform conflicting narratives of hegemonic articulations of dependencies and the actual experiences of injustice. This course confronts contradictions inherent in liberal democratic (capitalist) states especially in the “official” authoritative treatment of children and related issues of fundamental equality. This course seeks to provide a critical reading of children as a site of inquiry within comparative and historical contexts of political economy, cultural reproductions and hegemonic state and corporate practices". Justice as a set of texts, as narratives of inequality and as moments of morality are further contrasted. Moving well beyond the limitations of mainstream child socialization, this course encourages a progressive, strategic and engaged ‘praxis’ as a strategic site of social change.
Teaching and learning about justice and children allows students to understand the importance of treating people equitably and the responsibilities we all have to protect the rights of others. Upon the successful completion of this course, students should be able to:
- articulate (orally and in writing) a number of questions relating to children and youth justice issues, themes and concepts;
- develop critical thinking skills in appreciating historical and contemporary definitions of childhood and justice;
- assess the nature and extent of (in) justice and analyze theories which attempt to explain it;
- assess the effectiveness of child saving movements, socialization, treatment and other strategies for preventing and responding to youth “trouble”;
- define, describe and debate a number of key theories of social justice including those relating to ethics, morality, rights, membership, space, time and difference;
- learn to think about children and their behavior in terms of public discourse, scholarly theorizing, public policy, and institutional responses to “troublesome” behavior;
- evaluate the role of the law re injustices against youths and children;
- describe the relationship between youth conformity and resistance;
- assess ideological and institutional explanations of the transformations in social work, health, education, law and social policy re children ;
- evaluate in depth legislation in terms of underlying philosophies and current interpretations;
- use written and oral communication skills effectively in discussing the conditions, contexts and consequences of children and youth injustice;
- interpret clearly and critically problems inherent in conventional/ mainstream approaches to children and youth;
- determine how the nature of child and youth law shapes and is shaped by fundamental inequalities;
- explain why particular categories of youth are overrepresented in the youth criminal justice system, how discrepant “criminalizing” practices create ideologically “appropriate subjects”;
- analyze media reports on children misbehavior and youth crime;
- critique and apply culturally competent and social justice approaches to influence assessment, planning, access of resources, intervention, and research;
- Address from a number of conceptual lenses issues such as violence against children, social injustice, and marginalization.
The aims of this course are threefold:
First, to challenge the intellectual curiosities of students re. Justice for children and youth and facilitate the acquisition of intellectual tools: i. develop conceptual, thinking analytical skills; ii. Enhance writing skills; iii. Encourage the acquisition of oral skills.
Second, this course seeks to assist students in demonstrating a familiarity with the impact of ideologies on institutionalizing injustices in an effort to argue that the inherent normative nature of socialization in Canadian society exacerbates justice.
Lastly, students are urged to engage in debates about the role of culture in framing consciousness, law, popular media, public perception and current controversies regarding diverse interventive strategies.
Key concepts: Culture, Children, Justice
Theme: The Impact of culture on the relationship between justice and children
Conceptual Framework: the role of ideologies in institutionalizing identities